Analysis Of A Documentary

I recently watched Wayne Rooney’s documentary about his life and really enjoyed it. I got a few ideas from the documentary to use in my own. I have analysed the techniques used and the narrative structure to help in my production.

Rooney: The Man behind the Goals

Introduction:

It’s a documentary presented by Gary Lineker which explores Wayne Rooney’s life, featuring extensive interviews with Rooney himself, Coleen Rooney (his wife), and Rooney’s parents, Also, it features Sir Bobby Charlton, David Beckham and Real Madrid’s Cristiano Ronaldo.

It’s a one-off program which was first aired on BBC one at 9pm on the 5th of October 2015. The whole purpose them airing this program was to show football fans how a footballers life planned out and what they would have to go through to make it to top flight football or as professional. In addition, they aired this documentary for entertainment. Overall this documentary was informative as they shared a lot of information with the audience regarding Wayne Rooney. Furthermore, it shows the daily routine of what a footballer would be doing during his day off or outside of football. As seen in the documentary, what Rooney does outside of football is just spend as much as time with his family. You can also see this one-off documentary on BBC IPlayer for a limited time of only 7 days (1 week). The target audience is mainly; football fans, Manchester United fans, England fans. However, people who generally are into football/sports prefer to watch it.

Techniques:

The techniques that were being used in the documentary were archive, interviews, observational and reportage. Archive was being used when they were looking back on Rooney’s achievements, past history and what he had done to make those things happen and they did this by showing shots of him in action e.g. against Fenerbahce on his Champions League debut where he scored a hat-trick. There was plenty of Interviews when people such as Sir Bobby Charlton, Sir Alex Ferguson, Cristiano Ronaldo and this was shown on camera by Gary Lineker and the person who is being interviewed face to face. Furthermore, there was observational techniques used such as long shots, close ups, and the sounds of the fans cheering. Additionally, there was reportage of false rumours regarding that Rooney had handed a transfer request in 2010, but Rooney had denied this and committed his future to Manchester United. This was shown as archive as they looked back on this particular moment with some flashback moments which included him facing the press with at the time manager, Sir Alex Ferguson.

Narrative/narration structure:

It was a voiceover and narrated by Gary Lineker who played a huge role. Gary Lineker was chose to do the interviewing because of many reasons; firstly, he was a footballer himself, experienced (presenting/hosting Match of the day) and he was the third leading goal scorer for England behind Sir Bobby Charlton and Wayne Rooney himself. So it was in both 3rd person as it was just Gary Lineker talking. However, it was in 1st person as a variety of people obviously including Wayne Rooney were being interviewed by Gary Lineker. I chose to analyse the middle part of the documentary and I know that it’s the middle part of the documentary because the documentary is structured chronologically, so it’s giving the events one by and one. For example the documentary starts off with him playing for Everton, then Manchester United and finally for England so it’s basically giving an overview of the teams that he played for and what he had achieved at each stage/club and for country (England).

Is the documentary biased/objective, or subjective?

Personally, I wouldn’t say that this documentary is biased because it’s different players, managers and people who are talking about Rooney’s life and what he has achieved. Also, it wasn’t just Manchester United and England players who were giving their overall of ‘Mr Wayne Rooney’ so critics can’t go on about this being a biased documentary which was just making Rooney look good. Therefore its objective because we see everyone’s opinion. For example when Rooney was explaining the events in the past he had personal feelings e.g. when explaining the red card incident in the 2004 euros he had regrets over that decision of getting sent off and letting his team mates and home nation down. So you can tell that he was annoyed with himself from his facial expressions. Additionally, it was mainly pro-Rooney through the entire documentary (starting at Everton aged 16 all the way to playing for Manchester United at 30 years of age). He started his career as a professional footballer which then secured him to play for one of the biggest teams in the world ‘Manchester United’.

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Uses and Purposes Of Audio

 

Today I did some research on how sound is used in – TV/film – sound – based media (radio/podcasts)

What is the purpose of sound in a moving image product?

  • To create a mood – e.g. sad/slow music: sympathy
  • g. happy, uplifting music
  • Sound effects used in action, e.g. car crash – this is usually added on/enhanced in the edit using Foley.
  • Silence: tension/ suspense
  • Dialogue – story – telling or narration
  • 3rd person dialogue – talking in a “natural” environment, watching their story is the narration
  • 2nd person narration – voiceover – direct story – telling, we can’t see narrator.
  • 1st person: we see a presenter/ narrator who directly addresses us e.g. the news.

Camera Works/Explanation/Components

No matter what device you use, whether this is a mobile phone, compact digital camera or a digital SLR you will be familiar with digital cameras and how to take pictures. There is a variety of different components of camera which include; the lens, shutter, aperture, sensor and the flash. Each component has its own strengths and are important in the way a camera works. For example, each component has its own role.

Lens:

Starting with the lens, all cameras have lens. The lens is made up of glass and other element. Also, the lens focuses the image on to the digital sensor. After the image that you have taken is stored (in the library of the camera).

Automatic mode: the camera controls the aspects of the photograph

Smart phone – portable and compact.

smartphones

The pros of using manual mode:

  • Low light– for example if you’re stuck in a situation where you don’t have a lot of light to work with, you can switch to manual mode focusing will be the only way to capture an image.
  • Cost – they are cheaper than using auto mode so if you have a low budget, you will find that you’ll able to do more with manual lenses.
  • Availability – when using manual focus, more things become available to you.

Some situation call for manual focus – If you are shooting macro or portraits and need precise control, manual focus can be your best tool. You can focus on what you want instead of waiting for the camera to find it (and often miss it). This approach will make you photography more efficient. When focusing on something small, an autofocus system cannot always see the intended subject. You have a better chance on focusing on the subject manually. When working with a person, you can focus right on the eye and don’t have to wait for the camera. It makes your workflow a little more productive.

The cons of using manual mode:

  • Subjects and situations when you don’t have time to change settings.
  • When the light on the subject is changing, or the subject is moving from lighter to darker areas.
  • When you only need to control either the shutter speed or aperture for the effect you want.

The pros of using automatic mode:

  • Automatically sets up everything for you – you don’t really have to do anything apart focusing the camera on what you want to capture – it is completely loaded.
  • Automatically adjust to the environment you want.

The cons of using automatic mode:

  • If you’re new to photography, it will take time to figure out the basics like the control and the setting. For example, if you was use to using manual mode you would trouble by the control panel. An auto mode camera is like a map to a tourist who is new to a place. – it takes dedication to figure out.

Capturing images:

  • Lens – Starting with the lens, all cameras have lens. The lens is made up of glass and other element. Also, the lens focuses the image on to the digital sensor. After the image that you have taken is stored (in the library of the camera).
  • Memory – where information and saved data is stores
  • Shutter – there are 2 types of shutter that fit into different parts of the camera.
  • Aperture – a small hole where the lights go through.
  • Viewfinder – allows you to shoot in bright light. However, they use less power than LCD screens.
  • Image sensor – detects and conveys the information that is on the image
  • Lighting:
  1. Exposure– how bright a scene is and how it effects our image. – Over
    2. Quality – how focused or diffuse light is.
    3. Colour – the colour of the light in an image.
    4. Direction – where the light is coming from.
    5. Highlight – the brightest part of the image.
    6. Shadow – the darkest part of the image. – Under
    7. Contrast – The difference between the bright part of an image and the dark part of an image.

8. White balance – allows you to change the colour balance in your pictures.

Support:

Tripod – is used to stabilize the camera and put it into place. A tripod consist of 3 three legs and a head on top where the camera is placed.

tripod

Hand held – is a filmmaking and video production technique that involves the camera being held in camera operator’s hand.

handheld

File storage:

File storage in a camera keeps all the files in a safe and secure place. The size of a camera usually depends on its data size. For example, every camera has a LCD screen, so you view your picture right away.

fs

Treatment (For Shot Types)

Considering the fact that I was going to make a documentary I had to capture many different shots from all sorts of angles. So I’ve a produced a short explanation of the different camera shots that I used in my documentary as part of this treatment.

Here below are a couple of establishing shots from my documentary to show the point of view of the cameraman and the person talking. For example, in this shot you have an establishing shot of a pub which zooms out to reveal the point of view.

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Here is another establishing shot, whereas this its point of view shot of the construction of White Hart Lane and from the zoom out you can see the building.

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Down below are a couple of Close-ups which shows the audience what the main focus is on in that particular scene/shot. In the shot down below you have a close-up of one of the Tottenham fans talking and facing the interviewee.

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Here is another close-up of the producer who is talking about what he is doing today. As it’s a close-up, you can tell that the attention is on him and the maker wants the audience to focus on him.

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On the other hand, I did also capture other shots e.g the medium shot which gives you a clue of the setting and the surroundings. Down below is medium of the one of the Tottenham fans introducing himself to the audience.

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Furthermore, here is another medium shot of the Tottenham fan talking and you get a sense that it is interview because of the way he is sitting (how he is looking over at the interviewee like you would in a documentary).

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To show my creativity with the camera I managed to get a couple of long shots also. As you can see down below is a shot of the producer walking and narrating. You can see where the scene is set (in front of the Spurs shop).

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Here is another long shot of Tottenham legend Chris Jones’s meet and greet. From the shot you can where it’s taking place and who is at the event (the people who attended).

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However, I managed to gather camera shot’s to use in my documentary including the pan shot, 90 degrees rule, point of view and the zoom. Here is a couple of examples:

This is a 90 degree rule which is from the 90 degree angle of the camera.

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Here is pan shot of the producer walking and talking at the same time while the camera is moving with him.

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Down below is Point of view shot of from where it reveals the setting.

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Evaluation For ‘A Farewell To White Hart Lane’

Initially I had plans of creating a documentary on London based football clubs e.g. Tottenham Hotspur, Arsenal Football Club, Chelsea Football Club, West Ham United and Crystal Palace. However, I chose to stick with Tottenham Hotspur for many reasons. For example, the stadium was closest to my house so it the easiest to access and plus the stadium was coming to an end of an era so I thought that it would be good if I can make a documentary based on the special White Hart Lane for a perfect send off. The message that I was trying to give was that the local community and fans play a big role in running the club as they are main reasons why the club has grown over the past couple of years. Before I even escalated any decisions I thought about it very deeply and considered the purpose/target audience. How can I make like it’s just for a particular group? So my target audience for my final product football fans based in London and I tried to make it as relevant as I can to that particular audience by interviewing football fans of a particular football team in London who live in them London themselves as I thought would be better to have their point of view/there perspective of how it is to be a football fan in London. These particular have seen it all and have been to the majority of football grounds in London as shared with me their most memorable home/away matches that they had been to. So I think it was good to have different opinions both objective and subjective as everyone is entitled to their own opinion. In preparation to the final product I had a good time to think about what I was going to produce and from knowing already about my track record and the products that I produced in the past I decided to to make a documentary (film category) as it was my specialist/strong area. Since the start of the course I’ve always enjoyed film making and see it as my one of my strengths. Also, I work well on my own and I see myself as a bright and confident individual student.  I think that the product and all of the work that I have done regarding this project will help me in my further study of the course and possibly in the future as I feel like I have grown in experience of what I need to and how I need to do it in terms of producing a particular product for a particular age group or audience. Also I can use the final product as proof for when applying for University or a job to show that I’ve got some sought of experience when it come to film making or journalism work. Throughout the whole procedure there have been up’s and down’s which made me strive on to produce the product on the best of my ability and of course I have enjoyed every single bit. It was a project that I was really passionate about as it was about football which I live for. It was my choice to make a documentary regarding a football team and I don’t regret it one bit. I have done the best I could so hopefully it will pay off with the results of my grade and I hope that it’s beneficial for me in the latter stages of my media career.

Image result for tottenham hotspur

 

The researching procedure was probably the most helpful for the outcome of my final product. I did many kinds of research including both primary and secondary research.  So as primary research I managed to produce a questionnaire on football clubs based in London and there history. On the other hand, for the secondary research I went on the web to find out a little bit more about footballs fan in London and it turned out that London fans are the most violent fans across the country (especially Millwall and West Ham United fans). The research was very helpful I found out a lot about football fans based in London and gained more knowledge on the fan culture too. I think that it was a smart move of me to do some research into the fans of some particular clubs as before it would’ve been dangerous for me to visit and ask fans, who may not be the friendliest. Additionally, that was another reason behind me going and selecting Tottenham Hotspur as a club to focus on. From the sources I found that they were one of most friendliest fans in London and I can back that up by saying that they are. This is because when I visited the Lane they were kind and helpful. Obviously before I went out to film and interview some fans I did some research on my target audience. For example, I researched details based on their favourite pubs that they go to and their fondest memories of the club. I needed to this as it was a good way of having a good idea about who you’re going to interview and plus you would look like someone who knows there stats when coming face to face with fan, rather looking like you’re someone who doesn’t know anything about the club yourself.  I did a lot of research in preparation for the shooting of my documentary which includes; researching some facts about the new stadium that the club is going to build and found out that the stadium will have the largest single tier in the UK with 17,000 seats. Furthermore, there is going to be an in-house bakery which will be available for all of the fans. Moreover, the club will open a microbrewery which will be able to deliver 10,000 pints per minute which is a ton of fans who will get served really quickly and if you think the stadium is going to have a capacity of 61,000 so all the fans in the stadium will all be served within minutes. The club has stated that the development of the club/stadium will support nearly 3500 jobs. In addition, the stadium will host up to 16 non- football events each year. Also, I did further research into the pubs near the stadium to find out where the majority of the fans go so that I can possibly grab a few interviews with. Although that didn’t plan out I still learn’t a lot about Spurs fans and what they get up to match days. Additionally, I used already made Documentaries that are about certain clubs named ‘The Four Year Plan’ which is about a documentary about a football club called Queen’s Park Rangers who were running bankrupt, but in 2007 the club was bought by a billionaire who had objective’s to get the club into the Premier League. Many people described it as “vivid” and “dramatic”. However, in my own opinion I thought that it was satisfying and full of context from the footage that I saw. They presented the documentary really although, the West London club was going downhill and the scenery weren’t up to scratch. Unlike other documentaries, ‘The Four Year Plan’ didn’t have any narration/voice over which was a bit odd as it was mainly speech going on in the conversations taking place on screen and between the characters. The mise-en-scene is clear as the setting of this documentary, West London, Loftus Road is used to film this documentary. West London is known for it’s famous buildings and monuments so the setting was on point and looked really good on camera. I used a few ideas from this documentary for my documentary including camera shots and the organization of the interviews. The other documentary that I researched and watched was ‘The fans who literally built their club – Union Berlin’ which was a great watch as the fans spoke from the bottom of their heart and really put money and soul into making the club stands and develops. The way the documentary was shot and organised was helpful in me choosing how I was going to portray the fans/scenery. The planning procedure was tough but it paid off as; the storyboards, scripts, production schedule and risk assessment all helped they gave me a good idea of what I was going to expect and what I needed to be ready for. For example, the storyboard gave me good idea of how I am going to shoot my documentary and what camera shots I am going to capture. The script helped me in what I was going to say when filming or asking fan’s questions. The risk assessment was a way of me making sure to be safe and not in danger of being harmed by the surroundings. However, above all the production schedule was the true guide in what I was meant to be doing on a particular day. It gave me clues of what needed to done, plus it was just a way of being on track and organised. Overall, I think that my time management was really good as everything was up to date at the time and I managed to capture and shoot everything that I had wanted. Moreover, the editing was finished on time of the deadline (a week early) which tells you that I got my work done in time and I don’t like to mess around when it comes to deadlines. I had one goal and that was to meet the deadline which I had did.

Image result for researching

 

My target audience for my product is mainly footballs fans based in London (Tottenham Hotspur fans) as it’s a documentary based on a London football club. I am targeting all age groups as football fans vary out from all sorts of different ages.  I am targeting both genders so male and female. Other characteristics would be that they are all fans of the same club (Tottenham Hotspur). The ethnicity was going to be multicultural so that is why I interviewed fans from all kinds of backgrounds. From the feedback that I received from my target audience they are telling me that the purpose is key for a documentary about a particular club and in your case I think you have achieved that as the story line is obvious about what you’re trying to showcase/the message. The feedback that I received is beneficial for myself as it’s a way of me learning from my mistakes so that next time I could improve on it or present my work in another way. The audience also thought that the mise-en-scene in my documentary was very good as I visited different parts of the stadium (filmed inside the stadium) to capture different camera shots which showcased my creativity which the audience was impressed by. Stereo typically, young football fans (all footballs fan) are portrayed as violent and unfriendly. However, in my documentary I wanted to showcase that they’re all not like that and there are friendly fans too. The majority of my target audience responded to say that the voice over is probably best part and looks really good on camera as it showcases my creativity, plus imagination. My audience are likely to use my product too look back on the old stadium and the memories which had been showcased in that stadium. My intention is to have a direct impact on my audience in terms of the history and feelings/thoughts of the fans on the clubs past in this iconic stadium. When I uploaded the documentary to youtube along with the good feedback I got a significant amount of views/likes. People liked it so much that they asked me to make another documentary like this based on another club.

Image result for tottenham hotspur fans

 

Carrying on from the research, I made a football based questionnaire on London football clubs and their history. I got many good responses and feel that it was a good way of finding out a lot about football fans based in London. I have created a representation of young football fans based in London who give their opinions on the future of local community and what the new stadium is going bring to the people of Tottenham in terms of opportunities and that is what I showcased in my documentary. I got very statements and comments on this situation as the fans knew straight away of what the new stadium is going to bring. For example, I received answers such as; the new stadium is going to offer jobs to the local community, there will be more tourists (seen as a tourist attraction) a housing development will be taking place and a new school is going to be introduced to the public which are all beneficial for the local community/people of Tottenham. So not only did I represent young passionate Tottenham fans but I showcased the surroundings of the area which is going to grow. Also, the fans summed up why the Stadium is not only going to be an attraction but also a place that is going to be surrounded by other places that are going to be beneficial for the local community. The documentary that I looked at contained (The Four Year Plan) contained representations of the club Queen’s Park Rangers and how they were ran by a group of owners who took over the club during a time of the club in debt/on the verge of bankruptcy. So I tried to do a similar thing with my documentary by making a documentary that just focuses on one club (Tottenham Hotspur) but this time rather getting a professional help I decided to get the fans opinions of how the club is being run and developed. When I watched ‘The Four Year Plan’ I identified stereotypical representations of football club owners and how they don’t about the club but just invest do it for the money and that came across in a negative way to me as owners are expected to invest and make the fans happy. So that was another reason for me choosing to document on Tottenham football because at the time of me filming the new stadium was still in construction and being built so from that you can tell that the owners really care about the club. The fans that I interviewed in my documentary had many lovely things to say about their owner and why has invested his own money to build a new stadium for the club. I think these types of representations should be portrayed more rather negative ones like in ‘The Four Year Plan’. I decided that the only I will be able to encourage the audience is by to involve content such as fan-cams, where I ask fans about their take on the club and there reasons behind the big development of the club. Furthermore, I thought that different content such as shots of around the stadium might appeal to some fans as it will give them opportunities to go out there and see the amazing attractions that will be built and completed in the next few years. I think that the design and content of my documentary is a high standards in terms of the message being conveyed because my story line has got a purpose and is very organised.

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I’ve learnt a lot about media technologies from the process of constructing the final product. For example, I used a DSLR camera to shoot the footage so I learnt a lot about how to use and handle a DSLR e.g. panning and holding the camera in the correct position to capture different movements. To edit the footage I used the software Adobe Premiere Pro so I gained more experience of the software and now more confident of how you use the software including visual effects and video transitions. It wasn’t easy to use, but I am happy that acknowledged on how to use these types of software’s as they are most important procedures of the whole production as without it you won’t have any footage or visuals to improve or change. Using the camera weren’t the only thing I picked up on as I learned new camera shots/movements which I portrayed in the final product. I encountered many problems with the camera as it weren’t focused all the time so you had to sort that out and make sure it’s perfect for a good camera shot. Other than that I had a few difficulties when editing as the cutting procedure of the footage was hard because it was to cut it right on time and place in the correct places of the timeline for the footage. I can see a big difference in myself as I feel like I have gained more experience over the last year because I have developed new skills that I did not have before. These include; how to edit a full film on Adobe Premiere Pro and how to research like real journalist would need to do in order to further your knowledge on a particular product that you are trying to find out a little bit more about. In addition, I gained knowledge of how it is to work in the media and what types of stages you have to go through in order to produce a particular product.

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Initially, I had this idea of a documentary about all London football clubs including Arsenal, Tottenham, Chelsea, West Ham, Crystal Palace and many more. However, the final outcome of the product was a documentary just based on one footballing team in the name of Tottenham Hotspur, so the product does not fully match the initial idea. Although, in terms of what I was trying to achieve and the message I was putting out here, then it matches my initial idea – plus the purpose. This is not a problem as because I think my documentary looks really professional as it just focuses on a particular club which I showcased in the final product. On the other hand, from the conclusion of my audience’s feedback I found out that a few camera shots were shaky and of different lighting/colour. In order for this not to occur again next time I will try to use the tripod more often and make sure to adjust the lighting on the camera more carefully. Additionally, I have to work on my framing and shot composition types for next time as I feel like I could done better with the way I displayed the shots/scenes.

In summary, I think I have done a superb job and see my documentary creating a good effect on Tottenham fans.

Shooting Schedule

 

Here is the shooting schedule for my documentary and clearly from the table you can see what I was shooting on certain days what types of camera shots I captured.

Day of shooting

Shot type

Description Of Shot

Synopsis

Scene Number(s)

Location

Day 1 – 4/05/2017 – more than half of the scenes were bunched into this day as it was a perfect day to capture these shots because of the game that I attended so there were more fans than they usually would be on other days. LS/MS/CU of places near White Hart Lane and the stadium itself. Seeing as this was the first day of filming I needed to get different camera shots to get off to a good start. Scenes 1-5 were all shot on Day 1. Although scenes 1-5 were all shot on the same day, which was in the correct order, the other scenes that followed were shot in different days. White Hart Lane – Most of the shots were shot inside or outside the stadium, although there were establishing and other shots of the area including local pubs and shops that are near the stadium.
Day 2 – 11/05/2017 – only a few scenes were filmed on this day as there weren’t too many fans around so I did the best I could, although I got the chance to meet a club legend. LS/MS – of the interviewee (myself) introducing what he will be doing and there is many other shots of the area/stadium. Scenes 9 and 10 were shot on Day 2. The scenes weren’t shot in order but were placed in the correct order at the end. White Hart Lane – I got to meet Chris Jones near the stadium and managed to go around the area to see the wonderful sights of the stadium and place.
Day 3 – 16/05/2017 – the majority of the scenes of the scenes were shot on this day as I got interviewed fans of the club and got many other good shots of the area and stadium. Of course as it being the last day of shooting I had to finish off filming which I had did in a fashionable style. LS/MS/CU – different of inside the stadium and signs of the club. Plus, there was many shots of public/fans walking around with their kit’s and families. Scenes 6,7,8,11 were all shot on Day 3 and of course scene 12 is credits so it was just added at the end. Lilywhite House – This is the day where I got interview the fans so it was a must that I got different camera shots of them when they were talking otherwise it would’ve been plain and dull. The location that the interviews were shot in was the Lilywhite House based right next to the stadium, White Hart Lane.

Here is a link to the same version of this Shooting Schedule in a Google Form version:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1L_EYpg00i9njPpaAYWhE17pjuaaR7oW-l-qAmwEYFh4/edit